Park, 1991. Journal Of Dairy Science, 74:3326-3333, and Bowles And Church, 1985, Food Values Of Portions Commonly Used
GOAT AND HUMAN HEALTH…….
Human consumable fats can be saturated, unsaturated and trans-fatty acids
Saturated and trans-fatty acids comprises the bad cholesterol. These fatty acids are mainly responsible for coronary artery and cerebro-vascular diseases such Acute Myocardial Infraction(Heart Attack) and Stroke. Long standing elevation of bad cholesterol in human blood is responsible for the formation of cholesterol plaque that when it breaks forms a blood clot inside the blood vessel causing an acute deprivation of blood supply in our vital organs such the brain and heart. Food that raises cholesterol are meat, egg yolk, dairy products, butter, lard, French fries, etc.
Unsaturated fatty acids(Poly or Mono) is the good cholesterol. In high amount in our blood it lowers the bad cholesterol in our body.
Comparison of Goat meat to other meats shows that it is lowest in calories, fats and saturated fatty acids(bad cholesterol) as compared to beef, pork, lamb and chicken. Its protein content is just the same as the other kind. Unsaturated fatty acids(good cholesterol) predominates in goat meat. And as mentioned previously, in goats the fat is concentrated in the peritoneum and rarely in between the muscles strips.
Studies revealed that by dietary intervention alone with the use of goat meat prevents the use of cholesterol lowering agent. This was done by Dr. John Addrizzo of Staten Island Medical Center, New York.
It is safe to claim that indeed goat meat is the leanest amongst the red meat.
WHO ARE AT RISK?
Risk factor to a particular health problem can be classified as to modifiable and non-modifiable.
Non-modifiable risk factors are those that are born with. Certain disease has predilection to particular gender, age and race. Cardiovascular disease is more prevalent in the male population as osteoporosis is more related in women who are at the menopausal stage (gender and age related). This is related to the change hormonal milieu in the woman’s body at a particular age. People afflicted with Thalassemia are concentrated in the Mediterranean region. Factors and characteristics we are born with cannot be change i.e., genetics.
Modifiable risk factors are those that we can change, stop or limit. Example is cigarette smoking is very much related to pulmonary problem such as Lung Cancer and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertension though both can be inherited but it can be made worse by the type and amount of food we take and the kind of life style we keep. Tuberculosis is still prevalent in the third world countries though worldwide effort is now in place for its eradication but still it has a long way to go for the total extinction if the malnutrition, poverty and access to health care is not properly addressed. With the popularity of fast foods and sedentary life style increases the chance of being obese and obesity can be precursor of various health concerns. Several years ago, stress is ranked third risk factor for heart disease while hypercholesterolemia and diabetes mellitus ranked first and second respectively.
An example are the risk factors for Heart disease:
Hypercholeterolemia (High Cholesterol) – modifiable.
Male Gender – non-modifiable
Family History of heart disease – non-modifiable
Hypertension – modifiable and non-modifiable
Diabetes Mellitus and Metabolic Syndrome – modifiable and non-modifiable
Stress and Lifestyle – modifiable
Unhealthy Diet - modifiable
Why is there a presence modifiable and non-modifiable in some of the risk factors? For example in Diabetes Mellitus, if one of the parent is diabetic there is strong chance that the offspring may have one too, this is non-modifiable. But if the increase in blood sugar is secondary to poor eating habits then this can be change and therefore can be modified.
What does goats has to with this? As mentioned earlier, we raise goat/s for food. Goat meat and milk is a functional food thus it is nutricuetical. I will be discussing mainly on health issues secondary to modifiable factors since most of them are brought by food we consume.
WHY SHOULD YOU LISTEN TO THE DOCTOR?
An article by Rufo “Boying” Llorin, M.D.
Goats and Your Health
The Doctor and the Goats. I write this article both as a doctor of medicine for 30 years and a goat raiser for almost 7 years. My passion for health informs my respect for goats. In the Philippines, the goat is usually referred to as the poor man’s cow. However, goats may just turn out to be Aesop’s goose. As this is the first issue, let me digress a bit and share a brief account of my journey in the world of goat-raising. My initial involvement in raising goats for milk and meat was from purely as business stand-point. In 2007, the Naga City Goat Farm (NCGF) was established. It was the first commercial goat farm in Naga City and Camarines Sur. Eventually, my training in Internal Medicine and a believer of evidence-based medicine led me to probe into the health benefits of goat milk and meat. I wanted to know whether my product was a good substitute or better to mainstream milk and meat products. To my surprise, the wealth of available research studies shows that goat milk and meat indeed provides the most health benefits. I have since shared what I have learned. I started sharing the knowledge in a seminar for fellow goat raisers of the Camarines Sur Goat Raisers Association (CS-GRASS) and in conversations with members of Federation of Goat And Sheep Producers Associations of the Philippines Inc. (FGASPAPI). I have had the opportunity to give a pioneering talk during the 2010 National Dairy Congress in Cebu, at the Bureau of Animal Industry’s 2010 Annual Anniversary Celebration, Goat and Sheep Congress and had the honor to discuss the health benefits of goat milk and meat in the 17th International Agribusiness Exhibition and Seminars (AGRILINK) and with my peers in medical profession as well during medical conventions.
Health and Nutrition Problems. Philippine society is faced with multifarious health and nutrition problems. The 2003 National Nutrition and Health Survey (NNHS) reveals that among Filipino adults, 9 out of 10 have at least one risk factor that can lead to a heart attack; of the 84.6 million Filipinos, 22% or 18.6 million are hypertensive; 3.4% or 2.9 million are diabetic and 3.2% or 2.7 million are in the pre-diabetic stage; 8.5% or 7.2 million have high total cholesterol; bad cholesterol or LDL-c is prevalent in 3.7% or 3.1 million; low good cholesterol or low HDL-c prevalent in 54.2% or 45.9 million; 5% or 4.23 million are obese, with android obesity, that is, the localization of fat around the waist and in the upper body, prevalent among 54.8% or 46.4 million Filipino women. With regards the nutritional status of children, the NNHS reports that while declining from 1989 to 2003, 27% or over 3 million 0–5 year old children are underweight-for-age. Overweight-for-age has been observed to be significantly increasing for both 0-5 and 6-10 year-olds.
Diet and Health. Critical in health promotion and in disease prevention and management is proper nutrition. A well balanced diet comprising of diverse and healthy foods is key to good well being. There are several health problems that the food we eat is a factor, more so, that there are also several foods that help prevent or treat diseases. As health practitioner, we often assume that patients will dutifully follow our recommendations but the magnitude of non compliance is well documented. Obedience to dietary programs is thought to be poorer than medication regimens. Why? Dietary regimens are often restrictive requires changes in life style and behaviors, interfere with family habits and customs, and may last long. While genetics plays an important role in the onset of a health problems such as in Diabetes Mellitus, unhealthy lifestyle and foods are too is a major contributing factor. Nutritional deficiencies are most commonly associated with diet and sometimes due to cultural practices. Osteoporosis is mainly due to calcium deficiency. Diet could be involved in its causation but there are several stages in human life that a supplemental program should be adopted such as in pregnancy, women in menopausal stage, etc. Anemia especially in the third world country is one of the most common health problems. More often than not the reason for it is due to malnutrition and poverty others could be due to chronic illness or congenital anomaly. Coronary artery disease is closely linked to a diet that is high in saturated fats. Recommendations from medical groups that certain elements present in food might prevent the development of medical problem in the future. Like for example, conjugated linoleic acid in meaningful amounts in goat meat and milk could enhance the activity of the endogenous insulin in the human body and inhibit tumor genesis.
Health Benefits of Goat Milk and Meat. Over the past decade, consumers are now particular of the food they eat because of their increasing awareness of the health advantage and disadvantage of a certain product. Saturated fats from goat meat compared to pork, beef, lamb and chicken is lesser while providing the same protein content. Moreover, unsaturated fatty acids(Good fat/cholesterol) are more predominant in goat meat. This makes goat meat the heart-healthy choice. Did you know that goat milk is closest to human mother’s milk? Colostrum from a human mother’s milk is the most important factor for immunity and the immune system. Goat milk has colostrum which exactly replicates a human mother’s milk. Goat milk also contains the same vital bioactive components as a human mother’s milk. It also has a higher Vitamin A, Vitamin B1/Thiamine, and Riboflavin content than cow’s milk. Studies show that goat milk can contribute significantly in disease prevention. With 3.8 times more calcium than cow’s milk it is best for women who are pregnant, have just given birth, and those who menopause; and it is good for those who suffer from osteoporosis and arthritis. Goat milk contains no allergens which is common in other milk. With a higher content of potassium, sodium, iron, vitamins (A, C, Niacin, Riboflavin, B6, B12), minerals, and amino acids, goat milk aids in forming blood cells and brain cells. I am not a dermatologist, but there is also evidence that goat milk soap is also good for your skin because of the presence of Capric and caprylic acid that has an antifungal activity to name a few of its benefits.
In the future issues, I will discuss the above health benefits in detail. As the consumption of goat milk and meat can contribute to the improvement of health and nutrition, I now view goat-raising not merely as a profit-making venture, but as a social enterprise.
Now, listen to your doctor. Drink goat milk and eat goat meat!
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